mideval towns 讲了三个理论说中世纪城镇兴起的原因1商人的 route的 diversified商人在的确聚集 bulid walls形成 towns 2和宗教有关系以前的一些教堂人们聚集然后学校兴起 然后需要 service and goods所以商人过来了这三个理论都有一些正确性但是都不全面而且很多城镇是在就城镇的基础上复兴的。
【标题】parental frog care
parental frog care：frog care behavior有五种的常见的type然后说了 parental有 cost and benefits但是具体unknown，说了一些具体的parental details不过有一些negative方面。最后对比了一下说哪些species适合parental care哪些不适合。
关于 beetle的，说climate change导致气候变暖然后beetle breed变长后可以在更多的树上spawn导致beetle变多，然后一种叫spruce tree变少。然后说了spruce变少的negative影响也提到了一些positive影响，最后说了影响要是持续加重的话就无法恢复了。
【标题】Succession of plants
Succession of plants：一个地方植物种类的更迭因素和规律。一开始被火烧了的森林，一种树长起来，然后其他树长起来，生态稳定，这时候气候才会影响植物种类。
2. 学生找教授问language poetry意思。
历史：有个theater介绍 italia futurism 。跟传统比这种剧更短。并且是好多演员同时表演,观众会觉得很混乱...
Your school has decided to cancel the long summer vacation, so students have to attend school all year with some short breaks during holidays. Do you agree or disagree with the decision? Please explain the reasons.
I disagree that my school should decide to cancel the long summer vacation. First, students deserve a long break from fulltime schoolwork. Unlike working adults, students work hard and do not get any flex-days or accrued vacation days. Though it is a double standard that adults and most young people do not often question, it has to said: students work hard and deserve a break, just like anybody else. Second, having free time to experiment with activities, to play with friends, and to explore new ideas is central to youthful development. Not everything in life can be learned in books, and “long summer vacations” are actually opportunities to gain life-experience. Short breaks can’t provide young people enough time to discover themselves.
Group decision is better than individual decision。团队决定比个人决定更wiser是否同意
In my opinion, individual decision-making is better than group decision-making. Foremost, group decision-making will almost always require deliberation. When a group needs to choose one course of action, multiple people will have to voice their opinions and it will take more time to come to a conclusion, as opposed to a single individual’s decisive ability to immediately make the choice and act. Furthermore, group decision-making will likely involve concession of some members. One opinion of a course of action must be chosen over others, and all other opinions must be discarded. This means, unless there is unanimous agreement, some people will not have their choice reflected in the actions of the groups, usually minority opinion-holders who may have less power.
学生写信建议学校开设summer Book clubs，因为学生有时间二学生可以借此社交。男生表示不同意，因为一没时间，二其他活动可以参与。
illusion of control例子很难讲，就是两组被试去开开关，其实灯是控制好的。第一组没奖励，第二组有奖励，第二组有奖励就会觉得自己开开关决定了灯亮。
1. Integrated Writing 综合写作
Some people have ambitious dreams and keep pursuing them, but other people always focus on realistic goals and try to achieve them. Which do you think is better and why?
Having big goals in life is paramount to a life with any definition of success: if you don’t know where you are going, any road is a good enough one. The bigger the goal is, the better. A dream is just a very large goal if someone is serious about achieving it. I think it is better to pursue ambitious dreams as opposed to merely achieving realistic goals for that reason. Go big.
To begin, properly pursuing any dream will require satisfying many smaller, realistic goals. Once the dream is decided, the method of achieving it comes into focus by breaking it down into smaller parts. For example, if Joe’s dream is to become the best DJ in his city, he needs to, first, develop his DJ skills. This may take years, and he may need to finish school or work unsatisfying jobs while he pushes himself everyday to learn what he loves. Then, he needs to market himself as an artist: getting gigs at clubs, parties, and events. Maybe he needs a manager or a record label deal. Finally, he should make products and music that sell, funding his career. All three of these steps are complicated and take a lot of work. They, too, should be broken down into smaller, more realistic goals until he satisfies one of his dreams.
More importantly, having a dream gives life direction and purpose. A dream is the origin of smaller, realistic goals in a direction, but without any personal dreams, there is no reason to fight for goals in the first place. Without dreams, all achieved goals are arbitrary, and so is the direction of the dreamless person’s life. Imagine a man who is motivated and works hard to accomplish realistic goals in his life. He has other people’s expectations of him; he has the normal path of life that is prescribed by society: go to school, get a job, work hard, have a family; he has the random circumstances of daily life that call him to action. This man can do all these things and do them well, but without a dream, his life is not his own. He is a product of others, of society, and of circumstance. Life has purpose when you decide how to live it your way.
It is better to have dreams and direction in life than it is to merely accomplish goals. If you set out on a purposeful road, you never know how far it may take you or where you may find yourself.