A symbiotic relationship is an interaction between two or more species in which one species lives in or on another species. There are three main types of symbiotic relationships: parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism. The first and the third can be key factors in the structure of a biological community; that is, all the populations of organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area.
1. Which of the following statements about commensalism can be inferredfrom paragraph 1?
It excludes interactions betweenmore than two species.
It makes it less likely for specieswithin a community to survive.
Its significance to the organizationof biological communities is small.
Its role in the structure ofbiological populations is a disruptive one.
• 文中定位点：There are three main types ofsymbiotic relationships: parasitism, commensalism,and mutualism.有三种共生关系：寄生、共生、互利共栖。说的是题干关键词本身的内容，无法对应选项。
With question such as these clearly before them, the scientists aboard the Glomar Challenger processed to the Mediterranean to search for the answers.On August 23, 1970, they recovered a sample. The sample consisted of pebbles of hardened sediment that had once been soft, deep-sea mud, as well as granules of gypsum and fragments of volcanic rock. Not a single pebble was found that mighthave indicated that the pebbles came from the nearby continent. In the days following, samples of solid gypsum were repeatedly brought on deck as drilling operations penetrated the seafloor. Furthermore, the gypsum was found to possess peculiarities of composition and structure that suggested it had formed on desert flats. Sediment above and below the gypsum layer contained tiny marine fossils, indicating open-ocean conditions. As they drilled into the central and deepest part of the Mediterranean basin, the scientists took solid,shiny, crystalline salt from the core barrel. Interbedded with the salt were thin layers of what appeared to be wind blown silt.
4.Which of the following can beinferred from paragraph 3 about the solid gypsum layer?
It did not contain any marine fossil.
It had formed in open-ocean conditions.
It had once been soft, deep-sea mud.
It contained sediment from nearby deserts.
• 题干关键词：the solid gypsum layer
• 文中定位点：Sediment above and below the gypsumlayer contained tiny marine fossils, indicating open-ocean conditions.
【Paragraph 2】Yet this most fundamental standard of historical periodization concealsa host of paradoxes. Nearly every movie theater, however modest, had a piano ororgan to provide musical accompaniment to silent pictures. In many instances,spectators in the era before recorded sound experienced elaborate auralpresentations alongside movies' visual images, from the Japanese benshi(narrators) crafting multivoiced dialogue narratives to original musicalcompositions performed by symphony-size orchestras in Europe and the UnitedStates. In Berlin, for the premiere performance outside the Soviet Union of TheBattleship Potemkin, film director Sergei Eisenstein worked with Austriancomposer Edmund Meisel (1874-1930) on a musical score matching sound to image;the Berlin screenings with live music helped to bring the film its wideinternational fame.
5. Paragraph 2 suggests which of the following about Eisenstein’s film The Battleship Potemkirf?
The film was not accompanied by sound before its Berlin screening.
The film was unpopular in the Soviet Union before it was screened in Berlin.
Eisenstein’s film was the first instance of collaboration between a director and a composer.
Eisenstein believed that the musical score in a film was as important as dialogue.
• 题干关键词：Eisenstein’s film The Battleship Potemkirf，大写字母很容易找
• 文中定位点：In Berlin, for the premiereperformance outside the Soviet Union of The Battleship Potemkin, film directorSergei Eisenstein worked with Austrian composer Edmund Meisel (1874-1930) on amusical score matching sound to image; the Berlin screenings with live musichelped to bring the film its wide international fame.
The areas covered by this material were so vast that the ice that deposited it must have been a continental glacier larger than Greenland orAntarctica. Eventually, Agassiz and others convinced geologists and the general public that a great continental glaciation had extended the polar ice caps far into regions that now enjoy temperate climates. For the first time, peoplebegan to talk about ice ages. It was also apparent that the glaciation occurred in the relatively recent past because the drift was soft, like freshly deposited sediment. We now know the age of the glaciation accurately from radiometric dating of the carbon-14 in logs buried in the drift. The drift ofthe last glaciation was deposited during one of the most recent epochs of geologic time, the Pleistocene, which lasted from 1.8 million to 10,000 yearsago. Along the east coast of the United States, the southernmost advance ofthis ice is recorded by the enormous sand and drift deposits of the terminal moraines that form Long Island and Cape Cod.
5.It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that Agassiz and other geologistsof his time were not able to determine
which geographic regions had beencovered with ice sheets in the last ice age
the exact dates at which drifts hadbeen deposited during the last ice age
the exact composition of the driftslaid during the last ice age
how far south along the east coastof the United States the ice had advanced during the last ice age
• 题干关键词：Agassiz and other geologists of histimewere not able to determine
• 文中定位点：We now know the age of theglaciation accurately from radiometric dating of the carbon-14 in logs buriedin the drift.
• 利用反义推理：Wenow know ……→Agassiz and other geologists of histimewere not able to determine
It was not until the Cambrian period, beginning about 600 million yearsago, that a great proliferation of macroscopic species occurred on Earth andproduced a fossil record that allows us to track the rise and fall ofbiodiversity. Since the Cambrian period, biodiversity has generally risen, butthere have been some notable exceptions. Biodiversity collapsed dramaticallyduring at least five periods because of mass extinctions around the globe. Thefive major mass extinctions receive most of the attention, but they are onlyone end of a spectrum of extinction events. Collectively, more species wentextinct during smaller events that were less dramatic but more frequent. Thebest known of the five major extinction events, the one that saw the demise ofthe dinosaurs, is the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction.
2. Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about life onEarth before the Cambrian period?
Biodiversity levels were steady, asindicated by the fossil record.
Levels of biodiversity could not betracked.
The most dramatic extinction episodeoccurred.
Few microscopic species existed.
• 题干关键词：before the Cambrian period?
• 文中定位点：It was not until the Cambrian period, beginning about 600 million years ago, that a great proliferation ofmacroscopic species occurred on Earth and produced a fossil record that allowsus to track the rise and fall of biodiversity.
• 利用反义推理：It was not until the Cambrian period……allows us to track the riseand fall of biodiversity→Levels of biodiversity could not betracked.
Five centuries later, about 7700B.C., a new village rose on the mound.At first the inhabitants still hunted gazelle intensively. Then, about 7000B.C., within the space of a few generations, they switched abruptly to herdingdomesticated goats and sheep and to growing einkorn, pulses, and other cerealgrasses. Abu Hureyra grew rapidly until it covered nearly 30 acres. It was aclose-knit community of rectangular, one-story mud-brick houses, joined bynarrow lanes and courtyards, finally abandoned about 5000 B.C.. Many complexfactors led to the adoption of the new economies, not only at Abu Hureyra, butat many other locations such as 'Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, where goat toebones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding)testify to early herding of domestic stock.
10.According to paragraph 5, after 7000 B.C. the settlement of AbuHureyra differed from earlier settlements at that location in all of thefollowing EXCEPT
the domestication of animals
the intensive hunting of gazelle
the size of the settlement
the design of the dwellings
• 题干关键词：after 7000 B.C
• 文中定位点：Then, about 7000 B.C……但我的思考是，之后的内容对应选项则会成为正确的内容，而题目需要我们找到错误的内容并且选出来，那么，7000BC之前的内容如果对应选项，就应该是错误的并且可以被选出来了，根据这个想法我们往前看
• Five centuries later, about7700B.C., a new village rose on the mound. At first the inhabitants stillhunted gazelle intensively.
During wakefulness, breathing is controlled by two interacting systems.The first is an automatic, metabolic system whose control is centered in thebrain stem. It subconsciously adjusts breathing rate and depth in order toregulate the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2), and the acid-baseratio in the blood. The second system is the voluntary, behavioral system. Itscontrol center is based in the forebrain, and it regulates breathing for use inspeech, singing, sighing, and so on. It is capable of ignoring or overridingthe automatic, metabolic system and produces an irregular pattern of breathing.
2.According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true of thevoluntary breathing system EXCEPT:
It has its control center in thebrain stem.
It controls breathing for a numberof activities during wakefulness.
It is able to bypass the automatic system.
It produces an irregular breathing pattern.
• 题干关键词：the voluntary breathing system
• 文中定位点：The second system is the voluntary,behavioral system.
• 反义推理：看到second则一定有first，思考是first的内容对应选项则一定不符合second的内容所以文中The first is an automatic, metabolic systemwhose control is centered in the brain stem.