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必备SAT写作12种修辞方法和写作手段(二)
资讯 · 2018-02-02 15:01:10 浏览量 · 204
启德考培小编为大家系统整理SAT作文写作中的一些常用修辞方法和写作手段,希望对同学们的SAT作文写作有所裨益。

  从本篇开始,启德考培小编将为大家系统整理SAT作文写作中的一些常用修辞方法和写作手段,希望对同学们的SAT作文/article/all/sat/all写作有所裨益。

  4.Simile(明喻)

  这是英语里最常用的修辞之一,也是大家比较熟悉的一种修辞。它是根据联想,利用不同事物的相似点,借助比喻词,来清楚说明A事物在某些方面象B事物。

  一个典型的明喻,常常包括三部分,即本体、喻体和比喻词。在Mary is like flower这个明喻中,Mary为本体,flower为喻体,比喻词是like。

  但值得注意的是,在明喻里,本体和喻体必须是不同事物,或即使是同类事物也应具有不同性质。Mary is like flower是明喻,但 Mary is like her mother就不是明喻了,因为Mary和her mother是同类。

  在明喻中,用的最多的比喻词就是like,如:

  Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get.

  Living without an aim is like sailing without a compass.

  (生活没有目标,如同航行没有指南针)

  The whole of my life has passed like a razor--in hot water or a scrape.

  (我的人生过得如一把剃须刀:不是在热水中,就是在剐削中)

  注意,这个明喻句其实含有一个pun(双关语),in hot water和in a scrape都含有“困境重重”的意思。

  除了like作为比喻词,as也是常见的比喻词。值得注意的是,在明喻句子中,as用作介词,后面跟名词(这种情况下as类似like),也可以用作连词,后面接状语从句。

  His hands are gnarled and knotted as peach branches.

  (他的手象桃树枝一样,肿瘤节盘错)

  Men fear death, as children fear to going the dark.

  (人对死亡的恐惧,如同婴儿对黑暗的恐惧)

  上面连个明喻句很好理解,我们看下面三个对仗工整包含明喻的句子,请仔细体会。

  As the lion is king of beasts, so is the eagle king of birds.

  (鹰是鸟中之王,犹如狮乃兽中之王)

  As cold waters to a thirsty soul, so is good news from a far country.

  (来自远方的好消息,犹如口渴者眼里的凉水)

  Just as Darwin discovered the law of development of organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of development of human history.

  (正如达尔文发现了有机世界发展的规律一样,马克思发现了人类历史发展的规律)


必备SAT写作12种修辞方法和写作手段(二)


  很多as作为比喻词的明喻,已经成为英文里的成语。其结构为 as + 形容词+as+名词(注意,第一个as可以省略),如:

  as firm as rock(坚如磐石)

  As sober as a judge(十分清醒)

  As mute as a fish(噤若寒蝉)

  As strong as a horse(壮实如牛)

  As light as feather(轻若鸿毛)

  As close as an oyster(守口如瓶)

  除like和as之外,还有以what引导的明喻:

  A pen is to a writer what a gun to a soldier.

  (一个写作者手中的笔,就是一个士兵手中的枪)

  Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.

  (阅读之于思想,如同锻炼之于身体)

  Praise is to children what the sun is to flower.

  (对孩子的表扬,就如同阳光对于花朵)

  What blood vessel is to a man’s body,that railway is to transportation.

  (铁路对运输的重要性,就如同血管对人体的重要性)

  最后介绍一种特殊的明喻句,常见于英文谚语中,此时,and的作用相当于like,而不是表并列。如:

  Kings and bears often worry their keepers.

  (国王如熊,总是使照料他们的人不安)

  Love and cough can not be hid.

  (恋爱如同咳嗽,难逃他人耳目)

  A word and a stone let go cannot be recalled.

  (君子一言驷马难追)

  5.Metaphor (暗喻)

  暗喻和明喻的区别就是,暗喻没有比喻词,Mary is like flower是明喻,但Mary is flower就是个暗喻了。

  在实际运用中,暗喻的本体往往不出现,需要根据上下文去判断暗喻的本体是什么。

  暗喻的形式也多种多样,我们介绍几个最常见的形式。

  (1) 最最常见的就是A is B的结构了,其中A为本体,B为喻体,如:

  The world is a stage, and we are just players.

  (生活是舞台,我们只是演员)

  Happiness is a perfume you cannot pour on others without getting a few drops on yourself.

  (快乐如同香水,你自己身上没有几滴香水如何让别人芬芳)

  Life is a book: our birth is cover, but we have to fill the contents with our own hands.

  (生活如同书:出生是封面,但内容要我们自己去填满)

  (2)暗喻句采用形容词,如:

  She has a photographic memory for detail.

  (他对细节有如同照相机般的记忆)

  The mountainous waves swallowed up the ship.

  (巨浪吞噬了船只)

  The volcanic fires of his nature had burnt down.

  (他的脾气如火山般爆发了)

  (3)暗喻句采用动词,如:

  He was so hungry that he wolfed down the large dish of food within seconds.

  (他是如此饥饿,以至于几秒就把一盘食物狼吞虎咽下去)

  Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

  (有些书浅尝即可,有些书可以囫囵吞枣,但小部分的书需要细细咀嚼,慢慢消化)

  Finally the talk broke ice and an agreement was reached.

  (最终,谈判破冰,协议达成)

  She was walking on air when she received the job offer.

  (拿到工作录用后,她高兴得上天了)

  (4)暗喻句采用of短语型,如:

  The flower of freedom is blossoming in our nation.

  (自由之花在我们国家盛开)

  The tree of liberty has taken root in this beautiful land.

  (自由之树在这篇美丽的土地上生根)

  His eyes is burning with a flame of hopes.

  (他的眼里燃烧着和希望的光芒)

  The snake of traffic moved slowly.

  (蜿蜒的车流缓缓移动)

  The wife was eager to escape from the prison of her home.

  (妻子渴望逃离监狱般的家)

  6.Metonymy(转喻)

  转喻是不说明本体,而是借用与该人或物相关的名词来代替本体,就是用B来代替A。转喻的基础是联想,就是本体A和喻体B之间一定要紧密相关。

  比如,A pen is mightier than sword,这个转喻中,用pen来代替words,而用sword来代替force即武力。

  比如我们中文里说一个人很能喝酒,说一次可以喝掉3瓶,这个“瓶”就是代替“酒”,也是个转喻的例子。

  再看这一句,What is learned in the cradles is carried to the grave(幼小所学,终生不忘),在这个转喻中,用cradle代替birth,而用grave代替death,就是在摇篮里学校到的东西可以终生伴你,直到坟墓。

  转喻的形式多种多样,在我们平常的阅读中也是到处可见,下面举出一些例子,请大家仔细体会转喻的巧妙运用。

  I will give your my hand when you need.

  (如你需要,我会帮你)

  Many husbands are making a purse for themselves for cigarettes or socializing.

  (许多丈夫存私房钱买烟或社交)

  She has an eye for what is beautiful.

  (她对美具有鉴赏力)

  In love relationship, many girls let their hearts rule their heads.

  (在爱情关系中,许多女孩子让情感统治了理智)

  When breasts get together, gossip is unavoidable.

  (女人一聚会,闲言碎语就难免了)

  Whenever he felt bad, he would hit the bottle.

  (他感觉不好时,就会喝得大醉)

  The White House is considering another tax cut.

  (美国政府正在考虑减税)

  以上就是小编为大家整理的相关内容,如果想了解更多相关信息,请关注启德考培杭州分校平台,免费获取备考提分解决方案,或欢迎 点击这里 进行网络咨询,我们会给您提供专业的服务。最后,预祝大家SAT考试能取得理想的成绩。

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